Sekondus: U.S. government DRI male 19-50, 2000 calories, updated 2:1 ω-6:ω-3 ratio, and fiber recommendation

by sekondusLast updated November 23, 2018
Macro NutrientsAmountMax
Calories (kcal)20002200
Carbohydrates (g)279300
Protein (g)104300
Total Fat (g)57180
Saturated Fat (g)022.22
Monounsaturated Fat (g)0
Polyunsaturated Fat (g)0
Omega-3 Fatty Acids (g)8.5
Omega-6 Fatty Acids (g)12
Total Fiber (g)38
Soluble Fiber (g)3
Insoluble Fiber (g)30
Cholesterol (mg)0300
Vitamin A (IU)300010000
Vitamin B6 (mg)1.3100
Vitamin B12 (ug)2.4
Vitamin C (mg)902000
Vitamin D (IU)6004000
Vitamin E (IU)201000
Vitamin K (ug)120
Thiamin (mg)1.2
Riboflavin (mg)1.3
Niacin (mg)1641
Folate (ug)4001000
Pantothenic Acid (mg)5
Biotin (ug)30
Choline (mg)5503500
Calcium (g)12.5
Chloride (g)2.3
Chromium (ug)35
Copper (mg)0.910
Iodine (ug)1501100
Iron (mg)845
Magnesium (mg)420
Manganese (mg)2.311
Molybdenum (ug)452000
Phosphorus (g)0.74
Potassium (g)4.7
Selenium (ug)55400
Sodium (g)1.52.3
Sulfur (g)0.82
Zinc (mg)1140
Compare to:

This profile reflects current DRIs.

Macronutrient values reflect the least permissive limits when evaluating the minimum and maximum recommended DRIs for the percentage of calories one should receive from each category with respect to a 2000 calorie diet; or the RDA (if it's less permissive). Protein doesn't have an upper limit strongly supported by science, so the upper limit reflects the advice of researchers to avoid consuming more than twice what is necessary. The macronutrients are distributed as 55:20:20 carbohydrate:protein:fat kcals/day.

The profile reflects a 2:1 ratio of omega 6 to omega 3 fatty acids. Since the DRI maximum amount of omega 3 is less than 1/4 of the minimum amount of omega 6, the DRI has a certain conflict with recent wisdom regarding these fatty acids. This profile resolves this by allowing for a greater amount of omega 3. The recommendation for ω-3 does not specify the proportion of ALA, DHA, and EPA. ALA can be converted into DHA and EPA by the body, but only at an efficiency of around 15%. A ratio of 2:0.25:0.25 of ALA:DHA:EPA is recommended by the European Food Safety Authority

The Tolerable Upper Intake Level (UL) for niacin for adults is 35 mg/day according to the US NIH, which is based on flushing as the critical adverse effect (see: "Dietary Reference Intakes for Thiamin, Riboflavin, Niacin, Vitamin B6, Folate, Vitamin B12, Pantothenic Acid, Biotin, and Choline." Institute of Medicine (US) Standing Committee on the Scientific Evaluation of Dietary Reference Intakes and its Panel on Folate, Other B Vitamins, and Choline. Washington (DC): National Academies Press (US); 1998.). Setting the niacin UL to 41 mg/day due to not having a flushing reaction. Two studies of Canadian populations found that the median intake of niacin was approximately 41 mg/day for men, 28 mg/day for woman.

The "maximum" amount for Chloride has typically been set to match the amount of chloride that comes in the maximum levels of Sodium in table salt: "The AI for chloride is set at a level equivalent on a molar basis to that of sodium, since almost all dietary chloride comes with the sodium added during processing or consumption of foods."(ref) Studies of patients taking potassium chloride (in addition to a steady salt intake) showed a reduction in sodium levels in the body.(ref), caused by the presence of potassium.